- Gender-Hostage Acceptance: A person’s acceptance into a group depends on their conformity with a number of rules and standards.
Related Aspect- “To non-transgender people, going to the bathroom is a small thing, a normal and thoughtless part of their day, as routine as breathing air. To me, many other trans people, and anyone who doesn’t fit rigid norms of masculinity and femininity, just locating a bathroom where we will be safe causes anxiety, fear, and takes a great deal of time and effort.”
Doing Gender: When we interact with other people, we are encouraged and, to some extent (eventually), feel compelled to ‘act like a man’ or ‘act like a woman.’
Related Aspect- “If we are going to truly change our policies and our politics, then were also going to have to change…the way we see ourselves and this is happening already, but I want us to be more intentional about it….The emotional, sexual and psychological stereotyping of females begin when the doctor says it’s a girl…..and that has consequences for all of us…”
Gender Micropolitics: The doing of gender involves the exercise of powers, both in the active sense of acting upon something/someone (action) and in the passive sense of being acted upon by something/someone (passion).
Related Aspect-“It starts when the baby is born. Parents hurry to ask; is it a boy or girl? Preconceived notions of gender are then passed on to the child. Boys are expected to be tougher and stronger, girls are expected to be proper, have clean clothes and a tidy room. Soldiers and the color blue for boys, dolls and the color pink for girls.”
State’s Violence Monopoly: “governments (“the state”) have one specific feature that distinguishes them from other powerful organizations: they hold a monopoly on the legitimate use of force in a given territory.”
Related Aspect– “They could marry their boys to girls from other parts of the country in the normal, respectful way, but it is the extreme lack of respect for women that they do sex trafficking,” she says, “ its not as though they treat them as respected married partners. They treat them as commodities that can be recycled and resold.”
3rd World Worker + 2nd Class Woman = Cheapest Labor: Because of women’s second-class status, they are paid less than men for the same labor, which makes them a more attractive source labor for a multinational corporation that is already employing overseas workers in order to cut costs.
Related Aspect-” While 78% of those working in health and social care for example, a low paid sector, are women, 88% of those working in Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths, a high-paying sector, are men. Furthermore, due to women’s association working full time hours, effectively working a ‘double shift.’ To add to that, if the UN’s predictions are correct the gender gap is not set to close for another 70 years.
Domination: “the power to set the terms under which other groups and classes must operate, not total control.”
Related Aspect- “The inequalities between men and women are not limited to formalized structure of power. Abuse revelations go far beyond Parliaments grandiose corridoes. At the other end of the spectrum from the ‘softer side’ of abuse claims, sport presenter Charlie Webster revealed that she was sexually abused by her male coach when she was 15 years old. Webster, who yesterday embarked on a seven-day 250-mile marathon to raise money for women’s aid, a charity working to end domestic violence, explained that the reason for her disclosure was to break the taboo surrounding abuse.”
Ideology: “the complex set of rationales and rationalizations through which a group, class, or nation interprets the world and justifies its actions within it.
Related Aspect- “The global crisis is being played out daily in Pakistan, where patriarchy has historically been deep-seated and rarely questioned, but at the same time where women are awakening to their responsibilities and claiming them eagerly, using Islamic scripture to justify their choices. In May, Farzana Parveen, 25 years old and three-months pregnant, was murdered outside a Lahore courthouse because she married out of free will, a right guaranteed to women in Islam; her husband reneged on the dowry agreement with her family, who pounced upon them and bashed her to death with bricks.”
Sexual Harassment: “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature.”
Related Aspect– “27% of 27,818 EU citizens who participated in the survey thought forced sexual intercourse was acceptable in at least one set of circumstances. Some 12 percent of respondents, who were selected from different social and demographic backgrounds, said forced sexual intercourse was acceptable if the victim was “drunk or on drugs.”
War of Maneuver: “occurs when victories in the war of position result in a widespread shift in social consciousness that leads to collective public action against inequity.”
Related Aspect- “There is myriad anecdotal evidence of German women experiencing the culture clash firsthand. There are reports of men who refuse to shake hands with women. Some female teachers must deal with fathers of students who refuse to speak to them, or parents who don’t want a woman teaching their child. And there are instances in the business world where men refuse to work with women and demand that a women’s male superior be appointed as their point of contact in dealings.
Dependency Theory: This theory tries to explain global inequality in terms of a process of “the exploitation of weaker, poor nations by wealthy, more powerful ones”
Related Aspect– “These sex segregated schemes are often promoted to help “at risk” African-American boys. But in truth, co- education is not what is hindering these children’s schooling. The real problems are plain to see, and include inadequate funding, overcrowded schools and classrooms, and school officials’ obsession with test scores, exacerbated by the linkage of school funding to those scores. Sex segregation is a cheap, short-term diversion from the real problems of education inequality
I decided to create a painting of a man and a woman sharing the same body. The man, usually perceived as masculine with a strong bone structure. And a woman, usually seen as feminine with a delicate structure. Both seen differently, both act differently, and both treated differently, yet together they are both human