Double-Standard: “Sexually active men are positively reinforced by being referred to as “studs,” whereas women who are sexually active or report enjoying sex are derogatorily labeled as “sluts”…” (Boswell and Spade 2010:290)



Rape Culture: “is a set of values and beliefs that provide an environment conducive to rape…” (Boswell and Spade 2010:289)



Dominant-Aggressive Assumption: “Rape culture is based on the assumptions that men are aggressive and dominant whereas women are passive and acquiescent….” (Boswell and Spade 2010:289)



Blaming the Victim: This occurs whenever a minority/oppressed group is held responsible for their oppression—this practice takes the place of holding the majority groups and oppressive social institutions accountable for the oppression of minorities.



Virgen/Puta Double-Bind: The fact that women are called names like ‘whore’ or ‘slut’ for the same promiscuous acts as men is not just part of a double-standard: its part of a double-bind. In other words, women can’t win. If they are as promiscuous as men, the double-standard is invoked, but if they are celibate and a virgin, then they are called another set of names like ‘prude,’ which are designed to punish a woman for not letting men exploit her body for their pleasure and for proving their manhood. (Anzaldua 1987:31)



Rape-Free Societies: These types of societies have a number of pro-women characteristics such as “the ceremonial importance of women…”, “the respect accorded the contribution women make to social continuity…”, “the notion that the sexes are complementary…” such that the dependence of the genders upon each other is recognized, and sexual equality. (Sanday 2004:65)